The hip anatomy, or coxofemoral articulation, is responsible
for establishing the union between the lower extremity and the pelvis. It is an
articulation of the ball and socket joint type: movable articulation (diarthrosis),
whose articular surfaces are formed by a spherical or semi-spherical shape and
by a spherical concavity.
The coxofemoral articulation is formed by the articular surfaces of
the head of femur, spherical and convex, and the acetabulum or cotyloid cavity,
spherical and concave.
The head of femur, rounded and smooth, represents approximately two
thirds of a ball. It is oriented obliquely upward, inward and forward. At the
level of the articular surface, in the union between the lower third with the
two upper thirds there is a small wrinkled depression called the fovea of the
head, fovea capitis, where the round ligament is inserted and extends itself to
the acetabular , of an average length of 30-35 mm.
At the bottom of this pit you can find
numerous small orifices through which the arterial vessels penetrate the